Jessica Beebe 2 hours ago. Megan Summers 3 days ago. Maria Norris Sep 17, Kara Hedash Sep 16, Kendra Ackerman Sep 12, Marian Phillips Aug 20, Tim Buckler Aug 6, Lee Brown Aug 5, Bradley Harding Aug 5, Ben Sherlock Aug 4, Maisy Flowers Jul 7, Ben Sherlock Jul 5, Drew Atchison Jul 4, From the lab to your inbox. Get the latest science stories from CNET every week. A fresh investigation of the animal and the structure of its jaw showed it was classified in the wrong genus, so the "Prognathodon" part of the name had to go, making way for its kick-butt new moniker.
It's an upgrade from the previous name's translation of "forejaw tooth. A model of the mosasaur Gnathomortis' skull and the jaw fossils discovered in can be seen at Brigham Young University's Museum of Paleontology in Provo, Utah.
Trapped on the sinking vessel, Brody jams a pressurized scuba tank into the shark's mouth, and, climbing the crow's nest, shoots the tank with Quint's rifle. The resulting explosion obliterates the shark. Hooper surfaces, and he and Brody paddle back to Amity Island clinging to the remaining barrels. Richard D. Brown came across it in the literature section of lifestyle magazine Cosmopolitan , then edited by his wife, Helen Gurley Brown.
A small card written by the magazine's book editor gave a detailed description of the plot, concluding with the comment "might make a good movie". The year-old had just directed his first theatrical film, The Sugarland Express , for Zanuck and Brown. At the end of a meeting in their office, Spielberg noticed their copy of the still-unpublished Benchley novel, and after reading it was immediately captivated.
After Richards's departure, the producers signed Spielberg to direct in June , before the release of The Sugarland Express. Before production began, Spielberg grew reluctant to continue with Jaws , in fear of becoming typecast as the "truck and shark director".
Principal photography was set to begin in May Universal wanted the shoot to finish by the end of June, when the major studios' contract with the Screen Actors Guild was due to expire, to avoid any disruptions due to a potential strike.
For the screen adaptation, Spielberg wanted to stay with the novel's basic plot, but discarded many of Benchley's subplots. Spielberg, who felt that the characters in Benchley's script were still unlikable, invited the young screenwriter John Byrum to do a rewrite, but he declined the offer. Spielberg wanted "some levity" in Jaws , humor that would avoid making it "a dark sea hunt", so he turned to his friend Carl Gottlieb , a comedy writer-actor then working on the sitcom The Odd Couple.
He passed the audition one week before Spielberg took him to meet the producers regarding a writing job. While the deal was initially for a "one-week dialogue polish", Gottlieb eventually became the primary screenwriter, rewriting the entire script during a nine-week period of principal photography.
Many pieces of dialogue originated from the actors' improvisations during these meals; a few were created on set. John Milius contributed dialogue polishes,  and Sugarland Express writers Matthew Robbins and Hal Barwood also made uncredited contributions. Benchley had written Jaws after reading about sport fisherman Frank Mundus 's capture of an enormous shark in According to Gottlieb, Quint was loosely based on Mundus, whose book Sportfishing for Sharks he read for research.
Spielberg described it as a collaboration between Sackler, Milius, and actor Robert Shaw , who was also a playwright. Though Spielberg complied with a request from Zanuck and Brown to cast known actors,  he wanted to avoid hiring any big stars. He felt that "somewhat anonymous" performers would help the audience "believe this was happening to people like you and me", whereas "stars bring a lot of memories along with them, and those memories can sometimes One example was Deputy Hendricks, played by future television producer Jeffrey Kramer.
Kintner, the mother of the shark's second victim Alex Kintner played by Jeffrey Voorhees. The role of Brody was offered to Robert Duvall , but the actor was interested only in portraying Quint. Nine days before the start of production, neither Quint nor Hooper had been cast. And they were right. For the role of Hooper, Spielberg initially wanted Jon Voight. Disappointed in his performance and fearing that no one would want to hire him once Kravitz was released, he immediately called Spielberg and accepted the role in Jaws.
Because the film the director envisioned was so dissimilar to Benchley's novel, Spielberg asked Dreyfuss not to read it. Principal photography began May 2, ,  on the island of Martha's Vineyard , Massachusetts, selected after consideration was given to eastern Long Island.
Brown explained later that the production "needed a vacation area that was lower middle class enough so that an appearance of a shark would destroy the tourist business. Their construction involved a team of as many as 40 effects technicians, supervised by mechanical effects supervisor Bob Mattey , best known for creating the giant squid in 20, Leagues Under the Sea.
After the sharks were completed, they were trucked to the shooting location. Jaws was the first major motion picture to be shot on the ocean,  resulting in a troubled shoot, and went far over budget. The former was epitomized by his insistence on shooting at sea with a life-sized shark; "I could have shot the movie in the tank or even in a protected lake somewhere, but it would not have looked the same," he said. I was pretty naive about mother nature and the hubris of a filmmaker who thinks he can conquer the elements was foolhardy, but I was too young to know I was being foolhardy when I demanded that we shoot the film in the Atlantic Ocean and not in a North Hollywood tank.
Shooting at sea led to many delays: unwanted sailboats drifted into frame, cameras got soaked,  and the Orca once began to sink with the actors on board. From the first water test onward, the "non-absorbent" neoprene foam that made up the sharks' skin soaked up liquid, causing the sharks to balloon, and the sea-sled model frequently got entangled among forests of seaweed. Shaw also fled to Canada whenever he could due to tax problems,  engaged in binge drinking , and developed a grudge against Dreyfuss, who was getting rave reviews for his performance in Duddy Kravitz.
The delays proved beneficial in some regards. The script was refined during production, and the unreliable mechanical sharks forced Spielberg to shoot many scenes so that the shark was only hinted at.
For example, for much of the shark hunt, its location is indicated by the floating yellow barrels. This forced restraint is widely thought to have added to the film's suspense.
It made me become more like Alfred Hitchcock than like Ray Harryhausen. Footage of real sharks was shot by Ron and Valerie Taylor in the waters off Dangerous Reef in South Australia , with a short actor in a miniature shark cage to create the illusion that the sharks were enormous.
The footage of the cage attack was so stunning that Spielberg was eager to incorporate it in the film. No one had been in the cage at the time and the script, following the novel, originally had the shark killing Hooper in it. The storyline was consequently altered to have Hooper escape from the cage, which allowed the footage to be used. Although principal photography was scheduled to take 55 days, it did not wrap until October 6, , after days.
I heard rumors Fields, who had completed a rough cut of the first two-thirds of the film, up until the shark hunt, finished the editing and reworked some of the material.
According to Zanuck, "She actually came in and reconstructed some scenes that Steven had constructed for comedy and made them terrifying, and some scenes he shot to be terrifying and made them comedy scenes. Two scenes were altered following test screenings. As the audience's screams had covered up Scheider's "bigger boat" one-liner, Brody's reaction after the shark jumps behind him was extended, and the volume of the line was raised.
The underwater scene was shot in Fields's swimming pool in Encino, California ,  using a lifecast latex model of Craig Kingsbury's head attached to a fake body, which was placed in the wrecked boat's hull. John Williams composed the film's score , which earned him an Academy Award and was later ranked the sixth-greatest score by the American Film Institute.
Williams described the theme as "grinding away at you, just as a shark would do, instinctual, relentless, unstoppable.
When asked by Johnson why the melody was written in such a high register and not played by the more appropriate French horn, Williams responded that he wanted it to sound "a little more threatening".
As Williams saw similarities between Jaws and pirate movies, at other points in the score he evoked "pirate music", which he called "primal, but fun and entertaining". There are various interpretations of the meaning and effectiveness of the primary music theme, which is widely described as one of the most recognizable cinematic themes of all time.
He further argues that the score's strongest motif is actually "the split, the rupture"—when it dramatically cuts off, as after Chrissie's death. Spielberg later said that without Williams's score the film would have been only half as successful, and according to Williams it jumpstarted his career. Herman Melville 's Moby-Dick is the most notable artistic antecedent to Jaws. The character of Quint strongly resembles Captain Ahab , the obsessed captain of the Pequod who devotes his life to hunting a sperm whale.
Quint's monologue reveals a similar obsession with sharks; even his boat, the Orca , is named after the only natural enemy of the white shark. In the novel and original screenplay, Quint dies after being dragged under the ocean by a harpoon tied to his leg, similar to the death of Ahab in Melville's novel. However, the scene from Moby-Dick could not be licensed from the film's star, Gregory Peck , its copyright holder.
The underwater scenes shot from the shark's point of view have been compared with passages in two s horror films, Creature from the Black Lagoon and The Monster That Challenged the World. Those precedents helped Spielberg and Gottlieb to "concentrate on showing the 'effects' of the shark rather than the shark itself". Most is taken from horror , with the core of a nature-based monster movie while adding elements of a slasher film.
The second half is both a buddy film in the interaction between the crew of the Orca , and a supernatural horror based on the shark's depiction of a nearly Satanic menace. When the doctor attempts to convince the townspeople of the danger, he loses his job and is shunned.
This plotline is paralleled in Jaws by Brody's conflict with Mayor Vaughn, who refuses to acknowledge the presence of a shark that may dissuade summer beachgoers from coming to Amity. Brody is vindicated when more shark attacks occur at the crowded beach in broad daylight. Sinyard calls the film a "deft combination of Watergate and Ibsen's play". Jaws has received attention from academic critics. Stephen Heath relates the film's ideological meanings to the then-recent Watergate scandal.
He argues that Brody represents the "white male middle class—[there is] not a single black and, very quickly, not a single woman in the film", who restores public order "with an ordinary-guy kind of heroism born of fear-and-decency".
Andrew Britton contrasts the film to the novel's post-Watergate cynicism, suggesting that its narrative alterations from the book Hooper's survival, the shark's explosive death help make it "a communal exorcism, a ceremony for the restoration of ideological confidence.
Yet he observes that, far from the narrative formulas so often employed by New Hollywood filmmakers of the era—involving Us vs. Them, hip counterculture figures vs. Whereas Britton states that the film avoids the novel's theme of social class conflicts on Amity Island,  Biskind detects class divisions in the screen version and argues for their significance.
The seaman's "working class toughness and bourgeois independence is alien and frightening Hooper, meanwhile, is "associated with technology rather than experience, inherited wealth rather than self-made sufficiency"; he is marginalized from the conclusive action, if less terminally than Quint. Fredric Jameson 's analysis highlights the polysemy of the shark and the multiple ways in which it can be and has been read—from representing alien menaces such as communism or the Third World to more intimate dreads concerning the unreality of contemporary American life and the vain efforts to sanitize and suppress the knowledge of death.
He asserts that its symbolic function is to be found in this very "polysemousness which is profoundly ideological, insofar as it allows essentially social and historical anxieties to be folded back into apparently 'natural' ones Neal Gabler analyzed the film as showing three different approaches to solving an obstacle: science represented by Hooper , spiritualism represented by Quint , and the common man represented by Brody.
The last of the three is the one which succeeds and is in that way endorsed by the film. While in theaters, the film was said to have caused a single case of cinematic neurosis in a year-old, female viewer. This case study caused the film to become notable in the medical community alongside The Exorcist for causing stress reactions in its viewers, and was later used in a study by Brian R.
Johnson to test how susceptible audiences were to cinematic stress inducers. While Johnson could not find an exact cause for the stress response in viewers, whether it be the suspense, the gore or the music production, a study by G.
Sparks found that particularly violent films, including Jaws , tended to cause the most intense reactions in viewers. Seiniger ultimately decided that "you had to actually go underneath the shark so you could see his teeth.
More merchandise was created to take advantage of the film's release. In , Graeme Turner wrote that Jaws was accompanied by what was "probably the most elaborate array of tie-ins" including "a sound-track album, T-shirts, plastic tumblers, a book about the making of the movie, the book the movie was based on, beach towels, blankets, shark costumes, toy sharks, hobby kits, iron-transfers, games, posters, shark's tooth necklaces, sleepwear, water pistols, and more.
The glowing audience response to a rough cut of the film at two test screenings in Dallas on March 26, , and one in Long Beach , on March 28, along with the success of Benchley's novel and the early stages of Universal's marketing campaign, generated great interest among theater owners, facilitating the studio's plan to debut Jaws at hundreds of cinemas simultaneously.
I don't want people in Palm Springs to see the picture in Palm Springs. I want them to have to get in their cars and drive to see it in Hollywood.
At the time, wide openings were associated with movies of doubtful quality; not uncommon on the grindhouse and exploitation side of the industry, they were customarily employed to diminish the effect of negative reviews and word of mouth. There had been some recent exceptions, including the rerelease of Billy Jack and the original release of its sequel The Trial of Billy Jack , the Dirty Harry sequel Magnum Force , and the latest installments in the James Bond series. Distributors would then slowly forward prints to additional locales across the country, capitalizing on any positive critical or audience response.
The outsized success of The Godfather in had sparked a trend toward wider releases, but even that film had debuted in just five theaters, before going wide in its second weekend. For its 40th anniversary, the film was released in selected theaters across approximately theaters in the United States on Sunday, June 21, and Wednesday, June 24, The film entered overseas release in December ,  and its international business mirrored its domestic performance.
Star Wars surpassed Jaws for the U. On television, the American Broadcasting Company aired it for the first time on November 4, right after its theatrical re-release. Jaws received positive reviews. Murphy praised Spielberg's directorial skills, and called Robert Shaw's performance "absolutely magnificent". It speaks well of this director's gifts that some of the most frightening sequences in Jaws are those where we don't even see the shark. Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote, "It's a measure of how the film operates that not once do we feel particular sympathy for any of the shark's victims.
In the best films, characters are revealed in terms of the action. In movies like Jaws , characters are simply functions of the action He did describe it as "the sort of nonsense that can be a good deal of fun". It is a coarse-grained and exploitative work which depends on excess for its impact. Ashore it is a bore, awkwardly staged and lumpily written. Pechter of Commentary described Jaws as "a mind-numbing repast for sense-sated gluttons" and "filmmaking of this essentially manipulative sort"; Molly Haskell of The Village Voice similarly characterized it as a "scare machine that works with computer-like precision.
You feel like a rat, being given shock therapy". In the years since its release, Jaws has frequently been cited by film critics and industry professionals as one of the greatest movies of all time. In , the United States Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry , recognizing it as a landmark horror film and the first "summer movie".
Jaws was key in establishing the benefits of a wide national release backed by heavy television advertising, rather than the traditional progressive release in which a film slowly entered new markets and built support over time.
Moreover, Jaws whet corporate appetites for big profits quickly, which is to say, studios wanted every film to be Jaws. The film brought an emphatic end to Hollywood's five-year recession, while ushering in an era of high-cost, high-tech, high-speed thrillers. Jaws also played a major part in establishing summer as the prime season for the release of studios' biggest box-office contenders, their intended blockbusters ;   winter had long been the time when most hoped-for hits were distributed, while summer was largely reserved for dumping films thought likely to be poor performers.
The film had broader cultural repercussions, as well. Similar to the way the pivotal scene in 's Psycho made showers a new source of anxiety, Jaws led many viewers to fear going into the ocean. We are dedicated to providing the best software to provide accessibility tools for work and home.
Freedom Scientific offers a wide range of powerful desktop and portable video magnifiers designed for people with low vision conditions. Our magnifiers are made to help with all types of daily activities. Discover the freedom of independently reading and viewing the details that matter with any of our powerful low vision magnifiers. With a wide range of refreshable braille displays, we offer many options to fit your needs.The "jaws of death" lizard is now part of a proud tradition of hard-nosed prehistoric animal names that include Tyrannosaurus rex (king of the tyrant lizards) and Thanatotheristes (reaper of death.